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Thorn Apple (Datura) facts and health benefits

Facts and health benefits of Thorn Apple (Datura)

Facts and health benefits of Thorn Apple (Datura)

Thorn Apple (Datura) Fast Facts


Identify:

Thorn Apple (Datura)


Scientific Identify:

Datura stramonium


Origin

North America, in all probability Mexico


Colours

Inexperienced when younger turning to greyish brown


Shapes

Egg-shaped seed capsule is 1 to three in (Three–eight cm) in diameter and both coated with spines or bald


Style

Bitter


Health benefits

Fever Remedy, Impotence, Boosted Immune System, Improved Fertility, Higher Respiratory Health, Coronary heart Health, Nervousness and Stress , Hair Care, Wholesome Being pregnant, Common Sleep, Improved Temper


Datura stramonium, recognized by the English names Thorn Apple (Datura), jimsonweed or satan’s snare, is a plant within the Solanaceae household which is just of the deadliest from the Nightshade household. It’s thought-about to have originated in North America, in all probability Mexico, however it’s now widespread in vacant tons, alongside roadsides, and in different “waste places” in temperate and heat areas around the globe. Different in style widespread names for the plant embrace Jamestown weed, Widespread thorn-apple, False castor-oil, Jimsonweed, Mad apple, Moonflower, Purple thorn-apple, datura, Stinkwort, Thorn apple, Satan’s-apple, Stramonium jimsonweed, Satan’s trumpet, Jamestown weed, Stramonium, satan’s cucumber, pricklyburr, locoweed, tolguacha, satan’s weed, hell’s bell, satan’s snare, stinkweed and false castor oil plant.

The widespread identify ‘Jimsonweed’ might be a corruption of ‘Jamestown Weed,’ referring to the place this species was first noticed on the town of Jamestown, Virginia, the place British troopers consumed it whereas trying to defeat Bacon’s Rebel. They spent 11 days in altered psychological states. One other widespread identify that’s typically used for this species is ‘Thornapple.’ The genus identify Datura is derived from dhatura, the Bengali identify for the plant, whereas the epithet stramonium combines the Greek phrase strychnos for nightshade, and makinos which means mad, referring to the narcotic properties of the species.

The crops, seeds, flowers, leaves and roots have all been historically used for medicinal or visionary functions all over the world. Dried leaves have been made into smoking blends, typically together with tobacco or hashish, and all elements have been used to make teas and ointments. It has been utilized in conventional drugs to alleviate bronchial asthma signs and as an analgesic throughout surgical procedure or bone setting. It’s also a strong hallucinogen and deliriant, which is used entheogenically for the extreme visions it produces. Nevertheless, the tropane alkaloids liable for each the medicinal and hallucinogenic properties are fatally poisonous in solely barely larger quantities than the medicinal dosage, and careless use typically leads to hospitalizations and deaths.

Plant description

Thorn Apple (Datura) is a foul-smelling, erect, bushy, annual, freely branching herb that grows as much as 2 to five ft. (60 to 150 cm) tall. The plant is discovered rising in cropland (notably corn fields), fallow fields, previous feed tons, piles of soil at development websites, mounds of decomposed mulch and discarded vegetation, city vacant tons, and miscellaneous waste areas. It tolerates numerous soil varieties however prefers clayey or loamy soils. Roots are lengthy, white, thick, shallow, fibrous and extensively branched, however in some soils a stout, branched peg-like taproot with in depth stringy lateral roots can develop. The plant has stout, erect, leafy, clean, and inexperienced to purplish, stems. The stem forks off repeatedly into branches and every fork varieties a leaf and a single, erect flower.

Leaves

Within the seedling stage, the primary true leaves are ovate with pointed ideas and few or no lobes. In later levels the leaves, which have an disagreeable odor when crushed, are alternate, ovate to broadly triangular, glabrous, erratically toothed, 5-25 cm lengthy, Four-25 cm vast, on a petiole and as much as 10 cm lengthy. The higher floor of the leaves is a darker inexperienced, and the underside is a light-weight inexperienced. The leaves have a bitter and nauseating style, which is imparted to extracts of the herb, and stays even after the leaves have been dried.

Flower & Fruits

Flowers are trumpet-shaped, white to creamy or violet, and 2 1⁄2 to three 1⁄2 in (6–9 cm) lengthy, and develop on brief stems from both the axils of the leaves or the locations the place the branches fork. The calyx is lengthy and tubular, swollen on the backside, and sharply angled, surmounted by 5 sharp tooth. The corolla, which is folded and solely partially open, is white, funnel-shaped, and has outstanding ribs. The flowers open at night time, emitting a pleasing perfume, and are fed upon by nocturnal moths. Flowering usually takes place from July to October. Flowers are adopted by an ovoid, egg-shaped seed capsule, Three.5-6.5 cm lengthy, 2-5 cm large, opening by 4 valves and densely coated with kind of equal spines as much as 15 mm lengthy, not often clean. At maturity, it splits into 4 chambers, every with dozens of small seeds.  The quite a few seeds are darkish brown to black, flat, kidney-shaped with an irregularly pitted floor, Three-Four mm lengthy and 2-Three mm extensive.

Varieties

A number of totally different species of Datura can be found. All of the species are comparable in medicinal properties. Nevertheless, Ayurveda describes Datura Metallic as probably the most appropriate for medicinal objective. A few of the common Datura species are:

  • Datura metallic
  • Datura Alba
  • Datura stramonium
  • Datura fastuosa
  • Datura candida (Pers) Saff
  • Datura ceratocaula Ortega
  • Datura discolor Bernh
  • Datura dolichocarpa (Lagerh) Saff
  • Datura ferox L
  • Datura innoxia Mill
  • Datura inoxia Mill
  • Datura kymatocarpa Barclay
  • Datura leichhardtii Benth
  • Datura reburra Barclay
  • Datura wrightii Regel

All these species belong to potato household Solanaceae. A number of Datura crops and species are used as medicine and many different species are handled as weeds. Listed under is few info of common datura

1. Datura Alba (White datura)

Datura Alba bears white flowers and it grows naturally in Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim in India.

2. Datura metallic (purple datura)

Datura metallic is utilized in ayurvedic drugs and spiritual functions. It’s extensively utilized in bronchial asthma, persistence cough and ache issues. Its results are related to codeine in persistent cough and all trendy bronchodilators in bronchial asthma.

Three. Datura stramonium (Black datura)

Datura stramonium is a supply of a hypnotic drug generally known as stramonium. It has hypnotic and sedative results.

Health Benefits of Datura

The crops, seeds, flowers, leaves and roots have all been historically used for medicinal or visionary functions around the globe.  It’s helpful in bronchial asthma, cough, fever, inflammations, edema, neuralgia, madness, myalgia, hyperacidity, duodenal ulcer, renal colic, calculi, and dysmenorrhea. Roots are used for bites of rabid canine. Leaf is beneficial in inflammations and piles. Leaf juice is utilized externally for lice and in pores and skin illnesses. Let’s take a better take a look at a few of these fascinating health benefits of datura

1. Fever Remedy

Fruit of the datura can be utilized to scale back sure varieties of fever.  Historically, it has been efficient for the remedy of malaria, an issue that’s nonetheless current in lots of locations on the earth. The fruit may be instantly consumed after being burnt. (1)

2. Boosted Immune System

The plant consists of respectable quantity of ascorbic acid present in datura, and moreover, the excessive focus of antioxidants contributes to the power of the immune system. It encourages the manufacturing of white blood cells and neutralized numerous free radicals all through numerous methods of the physique.(2)

Three. Higher Respiratory Health

If you use datura in the identical approach as hashish, specifically rolling and smoking it, it could actually have sure antispasmodic results on the physique. That is principally efficient for the remedy of bronchial asthma, as it could calm the respiratory tracts and forestall them from closing up and inducing coughing. This antispasmodic can have an affect on the remainder of the physique as nicely, reminiscent of enjoyable muscle tissue. (Three)

Four. Coronary heart Health

By calming the physique and thoughts, it might loosen up the cardiovascular system. This helps individuals who endure from coronary heart arrhythmias or palpitations, in addition to decreasing blood strain and decreasing the probabilities of atherosclerosis, coronary heart assaults, and strokes. (Four)

5. Wholesome Being pregnant

If case you’re affected by a painful being pregnant or supply, the appliance of datura in a topical means might be fairly useful. Following supply, as soon as your child is not dependent in your physique instantly, you possibly can eat small quantities of fruit and even smoke this plant for ache aid and psychological calm. (5)

6. Common Sleep

Sedative qualities of datura have typically been advisable as a sleep assist. By calming the nerves, inducing wholesome hormonal launch, and decreasing irritation and ache, datura can effectively ship restful, undisturbed sleep for individuals affected by insomnia or different sleep issues. (6)

7. Improved Temper

Datura has the power to enhance temper and scale back stress. By inflicting the discharge of sure hormones into the physique, it may relieve stress and calm the thoughts. For many who regularly endure from stress, that build-up of hormones within the physique might be hazardous. Smoking small quantities of datura have historically been used to enhance temper and relieve signs of melancholy. (7)

eight. Improved Fertility

Datura has been used historically as a lift for sexual power, libido, and fertility. Though the precise pathway isn’t understood on this specific pathway, smoking datura has been related to elevated sexual power. By submerging the seeds into water or milk, you may as well improve circulation to the genitals, which will increase fertility and the health of the sperm. (eight)

9. Hair Care

Should you endure from male sample baldness, then you possibly can simply create a lotion for the hair that may be utilized to spice up hair health. It stimulates the expansion of latest hair and the upkeep of follicle beds in order that they don’t cease producing or holding hair. Extremely potent juice for baldness shouldn’t be consumed, as it’s such a excessive focus. (9)

10. Impotence

One of the in style makes use of of datura in conventional drugs was like a lift of sexual power, libido and fertility. Though the precise route isn’t recognized at this specific pathway, datura smoking has been linked to extend fertility. Submerging the seeds in water or milk, it could actually additionally improve circulation within the genitals, growing fertility and sperm health.

11. Nervousness and Stress

One of the notable results of datura is their capability to scale back stress. By inflicting the discharge of sure hormones within the physique, you’ll be able to relieve stress and calm the thoughts. For many who commonly endure from stress, the buildup of hormones within the physique may be hazardous. Smoking small quantities of datura have historically been used to enhance temper and relieve signs of melancholy.

Conventional makes use of and benefits of Thorn apple (Datura)

  • Datura has lengthy been used for bronchial asthma signs in ayurvedic medicines in India.
  • Leaves are usually smoked both in a cigarette or a pipe.
  • The Zuni as soon as used datura as an analgesic, to render sufferers unconscious whereas damaged bones have been set.
  • The Chinese language additionally used it on this method, as a type of anesthesia throughout surgical procedure.
  • Some college students and debtrawoch (lay clergymen), use D. stramonium to “open the mind” to be extra receptive to studying, and artistic and imaginative considering in Ethiopia.
  • Thorn apple is a bitter narcotic plant that relieves ache and encourages therapeutic.
  • Leaves, flowering tops and seeds are anodyne, anti-asthmatic, antispasmodic, hallucinogenic, hypnotic, mydriatic and narcotic.
  • Plant is used internally within the remedy of bronchial asthma and Parkinson’s illness, extra causes giddiness, dry mouth, hallucinations and coma.
  • Externally, it’s used as a poultice or washes within the remedy of fistulas, abscesses wounds and extreme neuralgia.
  • Leaves can be utilized as a really highly effective mind-altering drug, they include hyoscyamine and atropine.
  • Atropine dilates the pupils and is utilized in eye surgical procedure.
  • Leaves have been smoked as an antispasmodic within the remedy for bronchial asthma, although this apply is extraordinarily harmful.
  • Juice of the fruit is utilized to the scalp to deal with dandruff and falling hair.
  • Datura leaves counter fever, malarial fever and complications.
  • Mixture of Datura leaf and Jaggery is used for decreasing the temperature in Malaria.
  • Datura leaves are appropriate for treating Bronchial asthma.
  • Fumes produced by burning dried Datura leaves are antispasmodic in nature.
  • Inhaling the fumes offers aid throughout an Bronchial asthma assault.
  • Datura leaves are helpful in treating numerous Coronary heart illnesses.
  • It helps in protecting cardiac troubles at bay and regulates Warmth Beat.
  • Leaves are an efficient remedy for Hypertension and Misery.
  • Juice of Datura leaves is useful in treating Earaches and Ear infections.
  • Leaves are additionally used for enhancing milk manufacturing in lactating moms.
  • Seeds are useful in curbing Hair troubles like Dandruff and Hair fall.
  • Datura seed oil is utilized on bald patches to reinforce hair progress.
  • Seeds of a ripe Datura fruit are dried and boiled in cow’s milk for treating Impotence.
  • Datura, Longwort and Laung are taken with milk within the remedy of early discharge in males.
  • Datura seed ash is taken in low dosage for countering extreme sweating in palms and ft.
  • Datura flowers are a great treatment for treating infertility in ladies.
  • Flower powder is taken with honey 10 days publish menstruation.
  • Datura seeds are anti-diabetic in nature; they’re used together with Black pepper in decreasing sugar ranges.
  • Datura is efficient in combating psychological issues specifically epilepsy, schizophrenia, coma and insomnia.
  • It’s useful in remedy of nervous issues specifically Parkinson’s Dysfunction and Neuralgia.
  • It’s efficient in treating Dryness in Mouth, toothache and throat infections.
  • Datura is an effective natural treatment for curing respiratory troubles specifically bronchitis, whooping cough, bronchial asthma and chilly.
  • It’s favorable for pores and skin troubles like blisters, abscess, boils and itching.
  • Decoction ready from its leaves is a ache reliever and recovers accidents and wounds.
  • It’s helpful for sufferers battling persistent illness.
  • It’s useful in overcoming movement illness and giddiness. It mitigates stomach ache.
  • It helps in eliminating Intestinal worms and forestall additional invasion.
  • Datura calms Sciatica ache.
  • It combats Enuresis i.e. Mattress wetting.
  • Seeds and leaves of Datura have been used to sedate hysterical and psychotic sufferers, additionally to deal with insomnia.
  • It was reported that Datura was used internally to deal with insanity, epilepsy and melancholy.
  • Leaf ash is eaten as a remedy for whooping cough in Burundi.
  • Dried and floor leaves and seeds are eaten combined with fats to deal with ringworm in Kenya.
  • Items of younger fruit are sucked towards tonsillitis and sore throat and utilized to abscesses and swollen glands in Ethiopia.
  • Fruit is heated in scorching ash and after cooling juice is squeezed and used as ear drops to deal with earache in Kenya and Lesotho.
  • An infusion of fruit ash is drunk to deal with stomach-ache in Zimbabwe.
  • Smoke of burning seeds is inhaled to alleviate toothache in Ethiopia.

Ayurvedic Health benefits of Thorn Apple (Datura)

  • Bronchitis: Take Four to five dried Datura leaves. Burn them. Breathe the smoke for two to three minutes. Repeat this for Three to Four days.
  • Respiratory Illnesses: If somebody is dealing with problem in respiration, simply burn Four to five dried Datura Leaves. Inhale the smoke for two minutes. It provides on the spot aid.
  • Bronchial asthma: Take Four to five dried Datura leaves. Burn them. Inhale the smoke; repeat it 2 occasions in a day. Every day use is useful for Bronchial asthma and Bronchitis.
  • Abscess: Datura Leaves are very helpful in case of Abscess. Warmth required recent Datura. Place on the affected half and bandage. It helps to remedy Abscess and ache. (Observe: Chances are you’ll put Castor Oil over Leaf for extra benefits.)
  • Toothache: Many elements of Datura have been used to deal with toothache with totally different strategies.
  1. Seeds: Burn some Datura seeds. Breathe within the smoke of burnt seeds. It alleviates the toothache.
  2. Roots: Take recent or dried Datura roots. Grind them by including little water. Apply paste on the affected tooth. Depart for 10 to 15 minutes. It offers an efficient aid.
  • Wounds: Make a decoction of Datura Leaves. Depart it to chill down the decoction. Use it to scrub wounds at the very least twice a day.
  • Anti galactogogue: Heat Datura leaves and wraps it over the breasts. Repeat the method two occasions a day.
  • Rheumatism: Have 1 to 2 tablespoons of Datura leaves juice day by day. OR: Crush the leaves of Datura and use as a poultice on the affected space 2 to three occasions a day.
  • Earache: Boil Three to Four leaves of Datura in a cup of water for 10 to 12 minutes. Pressure the answer and let it cool. Put 1-2 drops in Ear two occasions a day.
  • Baldness: Take the seeds of 1 to 2 Datura fruits. Grind it with somewhat little bit of water to type a paste. Apply it on the affected space. Depart it for 15 to 20 minutes. Rinse off. Do that twice every week. OR: Apply Datura oil in your scalp for Hair Fall. OR: You might apply juice of Datura in your scalp to eliminate Hair fall.
  • Dandruff: Take the 1 to 2 tablespoons of recent juice of Datura leaves. Apply to the scalp. Rinse off with water after 2-Three hours. Repeat this 2 to three occasions every week.
  • Hydrophobia: Apply the juice of Datura by mixing it with Pink Chili.
  • Aphrodisiac: Put together a decoction, product of Datura leaves or flowers and one cup of water. Pressure and drink it.
  • Ache: Roast a hand full leaves of Datura and make a paste. Apply this on the affected space to get aid from ache.
  • Headache: Take some recent leaves of Datura and make a paste. Now apply this paste in your brow. It provides aid from Headache.
  • Impotence: Take dried seeds of Datura obtained from the ripened fruit. Boil these seeds in Cow’s Milk to acquire the extract. Apply this extract on the penis, two occasions a day. Common Therapeutic massage will assist to enhance the blood circulation to the genital organs, thus assist in curing Impotence.
  • Baldness: Take 2 to three teaspoons Datura seeds. Add 1 to 2 teaspoons of Milk Cream and 2 to three teaspoons of Liquorice powder in it. Grind to type a paste. Warmth this paste in 1 to 2 tablespoons of Coconut Oil till it will get charred. Let the answer cool. Apply it on the affected space. Depart it for 15 to 20 minutes. Wash with shampoo. Do that 2 to three occasions every week.
  • Earache: Take 125 gm. juice of datura leaves and similar quantity of sesame oil. Combine nicely. Boil in a tin vessel for five to 10 minutes on medium flame until the juice stays half. Add 5 to six leaves of Sodom and a pinch of salt in it. Boil until it will get a thick consistency. Pressure and let it cool. Put 2 to three drops of this options within the affected space twice a day.
  • Cracked ft: Make a paste of datura seeds and apply this paste on cracked ft. This software helps in treating cracked ft.
  • Madness: Take 125 mg of Datura Root Powder, 500 ml Milk, 5 gm. Jaggery and 5 ml Clarified Butter. Take Milk in a saucepan. Add Datura root powder, Jaggery and Clarified Butter in it. Stir nicely. Boil for five to 10 minutes. Pressure the Milk. Drink twice a day.
  • Malaria: Grind 1 to 2 recent leaves of Datura to type a paste. Add 1 to 2 teaspoons of Jaggery in it. Combine properly. Have it every day to remedy Malaria.
  • Leucoderma: Grind Ziziphus Xylopyrus leaves and Datura flowers. Apply it over the affected areas earlier than going to mattress.
  • Breast ache: A paste is produced from datura leaves and combined with a small quantity of turmeric. This paste is utilized on the have an effect on breast for relieving breast ache.
  • Hysteria: Grind Ziziphus Xylopyrus leaves and Datura flowers. Apply it over the affected areas earlier than going to mattress.
  • Intestinal worms: 5 to six drops of datura leaf juice is given to sufferers with buttermilk for eliminating intestinal worms.
  • Schizophrenia: Take milk and add white datura root powder, Jaggery and ghee. Boil the milk with all these components and pressure the milk in a glass. Give this combination to affected person struggling with schizophrenia.
  • Headache: Grind Ziziphus Xylopyrus leaves and Datura flowers. Apply it over the affected areas earlier than going to mattress.
  • Ear an infection with pus: Take 80 ml mustard oil, 10 grams purified sulphur, 10 grams turmeric powder and 320 ml of datura leaf juice. Now Take mustard oil and add all different three elements. Simmer the combination till oil stays. Then pressure the oil and discard residues. This oil is instilled in ear with infections and pus.
  • Filariasis or elephantiasis: Datura seeds and pipper longum is used to deal with filariasis.
  • Carbuncles: Datura root paste is ready with water and utilized on the carbuncles. It helps to deal with carbuncles and prevents scaring.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: A juice ready from datura, calotropis and castor leaves is utilized on swelling and irritation of joints on account of rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Sciatica: Scorching paste of datura leaves is utilized alongside the course of sciatica nerve to eliminate ache.
  • Epilepsy: Take 20 mg Datura seed powder, 20 mg saffron and 20 mg mishri. All three elements are combined in equal ratio. This combination is instilled in nostril throughout epilepsy assault.
  • Epilepsy: Combination of 60 mg of datura seed powder and 60 mg black pepper with butter is useful for epilepsy.
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Combination of 60 mg datura seed powder and 60 mg black pepper is useful for diabetes mellitus.
  • Dusk in Males: Tablets ready from 30 mg datura seed powder, 30 mg white cumin, 30 mg coriander seeds and Triphala water are used to deal with dusk in males. OR Combine first three components in powder type and take this combination with Triphala water.
  • Malaria fever: Recent Datura leaves are useful in malaria fever. A small quantity of leaf paste is given with Jaggery to decrease the temperature in malaria.
  • Early discharge in males: Take 30 mg datura seed powder, 30 mg Akarkara and 30 mg clove. This combination is given with milk twice a day for useful outcomes.
  • Infertility in ladies: Dried powder of datura flowers in dosage of 120 mg is given with honey 10 days after menstruation. It’s given for five to 7 days. This treatment is efficient in infertility of unknown cause.
  • Extreme sweating: Datura seed ash is given in dosage of 1 gram for seven days in sufferers complaining extreme sweating in palms and ft.
  • Headache: Consuming 2-Three seeds commonly helps to remedy headache.

Dosage

  • Datura seed powder: 60 mg to 125 mg
  • Datura leaf powder: 60 mg to 200 mg
  • Datura root powder: 60 mg to 200 mg
  • Datura flowers: 60 mg to 125 mg
  • Datura seed ash: 500 mg to 1 gram (Datura seed ash is the residue left after burning the datura seeds.)

Different facts

  • Onset of signs usually happens round 30 to 60 minutes after ingesting the herb.
  • Historic inhabitants of what’s at the moment central and southern California used to ingest the small black seeds of datura to “commune with deities through visions”.
  • Throughout the Americas, different indigenous peoples such because the Algonquin, Cherokee, Marie Galente, and Luiseño additionally used this plant in sacred ceremonies for its hallucinogenic properties.
  • It ought to be used with excessive warning and solely underneath the supervision of a professional practitioner since all elements of the plant are very toxic and the distinction between a medicinal dose and a poisonous dose could be very small.
  • Rising plant is claimed to guard neighboring crops from bugs.
  • One acre of Jimson weed produced 700 kilos of seed. Birds play essential position in dispersal of seed.
  • In Namibia a leaf extract is run to cows to make sure a speedy expulsion of the afterbirth.
  • Pulped roots are combined with water and given to cattle to remedy lung illnesses.

Precautions

  • Datura intoxication sometimes produces delirium, hyperthermia, tachycardia, weird conduct, and extreme mydriasis with resultant painful photophobia that may final a number of days.
  • Pronounced amnesia is one other generally reported impact.
  • These signs usually final from 24 to 48 hours, however have been reported in some instances to final so long as two weeks.
  • All members of this genus include narcotics and are very toxic, even in small doses.
  • Its unwanted side effects might embrace Nervous System Issues, Hallucination, Amnesia, Blurred Imaginative and prescient, Convulsions, Dizziness, Delirium, Psychosis, Coronary heart Drawback, Palpitation, Dilated Pupils, Blurred Imaginative and prescient, Nausea, Giddiness, Confusion and Quick Coronary heart Fee.
  • Juice of datura leaves can also be very dangerous for eyes.
  • Datura will increase the guts beat and might result in cardiac arrest.

Emergency remedy of datura poisoning

  • Abdomen wash is step one of emergency remedy of datura poisoning. First, the gastrointestinal tract is cleaned out. For this function, activated charcoal is used.
  • In excessive instances of datura overdose or poisoning, low doses of physostigmine might require to reverse the life threatening signs comparable to seizures, coma and respiratory melancholy.
  • If robust hallucinations happen, affected person may have benzodiazepines like ativan and valium. Hallucination resulting from datura can final for 48 to 72 hours.
  • Sufferers with anticholinergic toxicity are required to confess in ICU till the signs of anticholinergic toxicity disappear.

References:

https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=30520#null

https://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/14/

http://www.hear.org/pier/species/datura_stramonium.htm

https://pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Datura+stramonium

https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/18006

http://www.floracatalana.net/datura-stramonium-l

https://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/t/thorna12.html

https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=13323

https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=dast

http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/kew-2757848

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datura_stramonium

https://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/Datura_stramonium_(Common_Thorn_Apple).htm

https://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Datura_stramonium_(PROTA)

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